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Bokkilden The Practice of English Language Teaching - Jeremy Harmer - Audiovisuell/Multimedia (9781405853118)
The Practice of English Language Teaching - Jeremy Harmer Audiovisuell/Multimedia
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Utgitt:
Forlag:
Pearson Education Limited
Språk:
Engelsk
Sider:
448
Format:
25 x 19 cm
ISBN:
9781405853118
Utgave:
4 Rev ed

The Practice of English Language Teaching

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In this new edition, Jeremy Harmer brings you * a review of global English * ideas to help you continue your professional development alone or with others * methodology for teaching all the skill sectors in ELT * DVD with clips from real classrooms, observation tasks and interviews with teachers on their classroom technique

The Practice of English Language Teaching

Introduction 10(1)
Acknowledgements 11(2)
PART 1: LANGUAGE
The Changing World of English
A language story
13(6)
The triumph of English?
14(2)
The effect of English
16(1)
English as a global language
17(1)
The future of English
18(1)
EFL, ESL, ESOL & ELF
19(6)
English as a Lingua Franca (ELF)
20(1)
Teaching English in the age of ELF
21(1)
Native speaker varieties and other Englishes
21(1)
World English education
22(3)
Describing the English Language
Language in use
25(1)
What we want to say
26(3)
Form and meaning
26(1)
Purpose
27(1)
Appropriacy and register
27(2)
Language as text and discourse
29(3)
Discourse organisation
29(1)
Genre
30(2)
Grammar
32(1)
Choosing words
32(1)
Lexis
33(5)
Language corpora
33(2)
Word meaning
35(1)
Extending word use
36(1)
Word combinations
37(1)
The sounds of the language
38(5)
Pitch
38(1)
Intonation
38(1)
Individual sounds
39(3)
Sounds and spelling
42(1)
Stress
42(1)
Paralinguistic features of language
43(2)
Vocal paralinguistic features
43(1)
Physical paralinguistic features
44(1)
Speaking and writing
45(4)
PART 2: THEORIES, METHODS AND TECHNIQUES
Background Issues in Language Learning
The miracle of language
49(7)
Acquisition and learning
50(1)
The contributions of behaviourism
51(1)
`Language learning will take care of itself'
52(1)
Focus on form or focus on forms?
53(1)
Making sense of it all
54(2)
The importance of repetition
56(1)
Thinking about language
57(1)
Arousal, affect and humanistic teaching
58(1)
When you're ready!
59(1)
Language play
60(2)
Popular Methodology
Approaches, methods, procedures and techniques
62(14)
Grammar-translation, Direct method and Audiolingualism
63(1)
Presentation, practice and production
64(2)
PPP and alternatives to PPP
66(2)
Four methods
68(1)
Communicative Language Teaching (CLT)
69(2)
Task-based learning (TBL)
71(3)
The Lexical approach
74(1)
Teachers and students in dialogue together
75(1)
What methodology?
76(5)
Methods and culture
76(1)
Bargains, postmethod and context-sensitivity
77(1)
Making choices
78(3)
PART 3: LEARNERS AND TEACHERS
Describing Learners
Age
81(4)
Young children
82(1)
Adolescents
83(1)
Adult learners
84(1)
Learner differences
85(10)
Aptitude and intelligence
85(1)
Good learner characteristics
86(2)
Learner styles and strategies
88(1)
Individual variations
89(3)
What to do about individual differences
92(3)
Language levels
95(3)
Methodology
96(1)
Language, task and topic
97(1)
Motivation
98(9)
Defining motivation
98(1)
External sources of information
98(1)
The motivation angel
99(8)
Describing Teachers
What is `teaching'?
107(1)
In the classroom
108(5)
The roles of a teacher
108(3)
Organising students and activities
111(1)
The teacher as performer
112(1)
Rapport
113(3)
The teacher as teaching aid
116(2)
Mime and gesture
116(1)
The teacher as language model
117(1)
The teacher as provider of comprehensible input
117(1)
Native-speaker teachers and non-native-speaker teachers
118(3)
Describing Learning Contexts
The place and means of instruction
121(1)
Class size
122(5)
Teaching one-to-one
122(3)
Large classes
125(2)
Managing mixed ability
127(5)
Working with different content
128(1)
Different student actions
128(1)
What the teacher does
129(2)
Realistic mixed-ability teaching
131(1)
Monolingual, bilingual and multilingual
132(5)
Foreign-language students and their first language
132(1)
The benefits of using the L1 in the L2 classroom
133(1)
The disadvantages of using the L1 in the L2 classroom
134(1)
Taking a stand
135(2)
PART 4: MANAGING LEARNING
Mistakes and Feedback
Students make mistakes
137(1)
Assessing student performance
138(4)
Teachers assessing students
138(2)
Students assessing themselves
140(2)
Feedback during oral work
142(5)
Accuracy and fluency
142(2)
Feedback during accuracy work
144(1)
Feedback during fluency work
145(2)
Feedback on written work
147(6)
Responding
147(2)
Correcting
149(1)
Training students
149(1)
Involving students
150(1)
Finishing the feedback process
151(1)
Burning the midnight oil
151(2)
Managing for Success
Why problems occur
153(2)
Creating successful classrooms
155(3)
Behaviour norms
155(1)
How teachers can ensure successful behaviour
156(2)
Modifying problem behaviour
158(3)
Grouping Students
Different groups
161(6)
Whole-class teaching
161(1)
Seating whole-group classes
162(2)
Students on their own
164(1)
Pairwork
165(1)
Groupwork
165(1)
Ringing the changes
166(1)
Organising pairwork and groupwork
167(8)
Making it work
167(1)
Creating pairs and groups
168(3)
Procedures for pairwork and groupwork
171(2)
Troubleshooting
173(2)
PART 5: THE CHANGING WORLD OF THE CLASSROOM
Educational Technology and Other Learning Resource
The technology pyramid
175(1)
The students themselves
176(1)
Objects, pictures and things
177(4)
Realia
177(1)
Pictures
178(2)
Cards
180(1)
Cuisenaire rods
180(1)
The coursebook
181(2)
Coursebook or no coursebook?
181(1)
Using coursebooks
182(1)
Ways of showing
183(4)
The board
183(2)
The overhead projector (OHP)
185(1)
The flip chart
186(1)
Computer-based presentation technology
187(1)
Ways of listening
187(1)
Ways of finding out
188(4)
Dictionaries
188(2)
Concordancers
190(1)
Searching the Internet
190(2)
Practising language on the Internet and on CD-ROM
192(1)
Ways of composing
193(1)
Word processing, word editing
193(1)
Mousepals, chat and blogging
193(1)
Authoring
194(1)
Designing websites
194(1)
Virtual learning: from emails to simulated environments
194(1)
Six questions
195(5)
PART 6: FOCUSING ON THE LANGUAGE
Teaching Language Construction
Studying structure and use
200(3)
Language study in lesson sequences
200(1)
Choosing study activities
201(1)
Known or unknown language?
202(1)
Explain and practise
203(4)
Explaining things
204(2)
Practice (accurate reproduction)
206(1)
Discover (and practise)
207(1)
Research (and practise)
208(2)
Teaching Grammar
Introducing grammar
210(6)
Discovering grammar
216(3)
Practising grammar
219(4)
Grammar games
223(1)
Grammar books
224(5)
Using grammar books
227(2)
Teaching Vocabulary
Introducing vocabulary
229(6)
Practising vocabulary
235(3)
Vocabulary games
238(1)
Using dictionaries
239(9)
Reference and production dictionaries
239(2)
Dictionary activities
241(5)
When students use dictionaries
246(2)
Teaching Pronunciation
Pronunciation issues
248(5)
Perfection versus intelligibility
248(1)
Problems
249(1)
Phonemic symbols: to use or not to use?
250(1)
When to teach pronunciation
251(1)
Helping individual students
252(1)
Examples of pronunciation teaching
253(12)
Working with sounds
253(3)
Working with stress
256(3)
Working with intonation
259(3)
Sounds and spelling
262(1)
Connected speech and fluency
263(2)
PART 7: LANGUAGE SKILLS
Teaching Language Skills
Skills together
265(5)
Input and output
266(1)
Integrating skills
266(1)
Language skills, language construction
267(1)
Integrating skill and language work
268(2)
Top-down and bottom-up
270(1)
Receptive skills
270(5)
A basic methodological model for teaching receptive skills
270(2)
The language issue
272(2)
Comprehension tasks
274(1)
Productive skills
275(3)
A basic methodological model for teaching productive skills
275(1)
Structuring discourse
276(1)
Interacting with an audience
277(1)
Dealing with difficulty
277(1)
The language issue
278(1)
Projects
278(5)
Managing projects
279(1)
A webquest project
280(3)
Reading
Extensive and intensive reading
283(5)
Extensive reading
283(3)
Intensive reading: the roles of the teacher
286(1)
Intensive reading: the vocabulary question
286(1)
Intensive reading: letting the students in
287(1)
Reading lesson sequences
288(15)
Examples of reading sequences
288(15)
Listening
Extensive and intensive listening
303(5)
Extensive listening
303(1)
Intensive listening: using audio material
304(2)
Who controls the recorded material?
306(1)
Intensive listening: `live' listening
306(1)
Intensive listening: the roles of the teacher
307(1)
Film and video
308(2)
Viewing techniques
308(1)
Listening (and mixed) techniques
309(1)
Listening (and film) lesson sequences
310(9)
Examples of listening sequences
310(9)
The sound of music
319(4)
Writing
Literacy
323(2)
Handwriting
323(1)
Spelling
324(1)
Layout and punctuation
325(1)
Approaches to student writing
325(6)
Process and product
325(2)
Genre
327(1)
Creative writing
328(1)
Writing as a cooperative activity
328(1)
Building the writing habit
329(1)
Writing-for-learning and writing-for-writing
330(1)
The roles of the teacher
330(1)
Writing lesson sequences
331(9)
Portfolios, journals, letters
340(3)
Speaking
Elements of speaking
343(2)
Different speaking events
343(1)
Conversational strategies
343(2)
Functional language, adjacency pairs and fixed phrases
345(1)
Students and speaking
345(3)
Reluctant students
345(2)
The roles of the teacher
347(1)
Classroom speaking activities
348(5)
Acting from a script
348(1)
Communication games
349(1)
Discussion
350(1)
Prepared talks
351(1)
Questionnaires
352(1)
Simulation and role-play
352(1)
Speaking lesson sequences
353(8)
Making recordings
361(3)
Getting everyone involved
362(2)
PART 8: PLANNING AND SYLLABUSES
Planning Lessons
The planning paradox
364(3)
The planning continuum
365(1)
Using plans in class
365(2)
Pre-planning and planning
367(8)
Student needs
367(1)
Making the plan
368(3)
Making the plan formal: background elements
371(3)
Making the plan formal: describing procedure and materials
374(1)
Planning a sequence of lessons
375(4)
Projects and threads
377(2)
PART 9: EVALUATION
Testing and Evaluation
Testing and assessment
379(2)
Different types of testing
379(2)
Characteristics of a good test
381(1)
Types of test item
381(5)
Direct and indirect test items
381(1)
Indirect test item types
382(2)
Direct test item types
384(2)
Writing and marking tests
386(3)
Writing tests
386(1)
Marking tests
387(2)
Teaching for tests
389(6)
PART 10: LEARNER AUTONOMY AND TEACHER DEVELOPMENT
Learner Autonomy: Learning to Learn
Promoting autonomy
395(1)
Students and teachers
395(1)
Learner training, learner autonomy
396(7)
Thinking about learning
397(2)
Taking over
399(1)
Learning journals
400(3)
Forcing agency?
403(1)
The self-access centre (SAC)
403(4)
Characteristics of a good self-access centre
404(2)
Evaluating self-access resources
406(1)
After (and outside) the course
407(3)
Training students to continue learning
407(3)
What Teachers Do Next
Reflection paths
410(4)
Keeping journals
411(1)
Negative and positive
411(1)
Recording ourselves
412(1)
Professional literature
413(1)
Action research
414(4)
Action research cycles
414(1)
Gathering data
415(3)
Developing with others
418(4)
Cooperative/collaborative development
418(1)
Peer teaching, peer observation
419(2)
Teachers' groups
421(1)
Teachers' associations
421(1)
The virtual community
422(1)
Moving outwards and sideways
422(3)
Learning by learning
423(1)
Supplementing teaching
423(2)
More training?
425(1)
Being well
425(4)
Bibliography 429(9)
DVD Contents and tasks 438(4)
Indexes (Subject and Author) 442
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